Anaphylaxis is a type of allergy which begins with sudden symptoms and then progress rapidly, possibly posing a threat to body system such as respiratory or cardiovascular system. It commonly derives from food, insect sting, medications and latex. Causes and Risk Factors of Anaphylaxis
How immune system work
Immune system: is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protect you from disease or strange substances. Once having exposure to foreign substance, antibodies which are the product of immune cells (lymphocytes) will realize them in the next time. On future exposures, antibodies will unite the substances and receptors on mast cells and basophils which contain the mediator chemicals or histamine to boost an inflammatory reaction.
Due to histamine and mediator chemicals, the blood vessels are likely to widen so there are more fluid delivering to the tissues, leading to swelling. The chemicals have detrimental effects on several disparate systems in body including hypotension, hives or shortness of breath.
Although you are not likely to suffer from anaphylaxis from the first exposure to an allergen, but the next time the substance which you are sensitive to may trigger your anaphylactic episode.
Sometimes these chemicals are directly triggered to be released, without prior exposure or development of antibodies. This is called an anaphylactoid reaction and is more often seen in reactions to IV contrast medium, opioids, exercise, and extreme temperatures.
Anaphylaxis is a type of severe allergy. Nevertheless, it does not mean that every allergies can result in anaphylactic reaction. For instance, some common respiratory allergies such as hay fever and animal dander rarely cause anaphylaxis. Each particular allergen can be responsible for each anaphylactic case.
Pay attention to allergy foods
Almost all anaphylactic reactions in both children and adults originate from food-based allergies including peanuts, tree nuts (walnuts, hazelnuts, pecans), fish, shellfish, chicken eggs, and cow’s milk or wheat, soy, sesame seeds, kiwi fruit, and lupin flour.
Insect stings Allergies
The anaphylaxis can be made imminent by insect stings such as yellow jackets, honeybees, paper wasps, hornets or fire ants. Among of that, wasp and bee stings are reported as the most popular triggers in both children and adults.
Drug allergies need attention
Medication allergies may first be to blame for anaphylactic reaction in all age groups. There are some drugs manufacturing anaphylaxis such as penicillin, aspirin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including Advil (ibuprofen) and Aleve (naproxen).
Anaphylactoid reactions are defined as those reactions that produce the same clinical picture with anaphylaxis but are not IgE mediated, occur through a direct nonimmune-mediated release of mediators from mast cells and/or basophils or result from direct complement activation.
There are some factors seen with medication-induced anaphylaxis:
- Insulin- a hormone that lowers the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood, especially from non-human sources or when not used recently or regularly.
- Sulfa drugs which were used to treat and prevent bacterial infections in humans.
- Medicines needed to cure seizures
- Medicines applied to the skin such as antibiotics
- Local anesthetics- a medication that causes absence of pain sensation are used in dental procedures
Understanding Latex Allergies
Latex allergy is a reaction to certain proteins found in natural rubber latex which is the resource for many medical items and consumer products. In the 1980s, the need for latex increased dramatically, especially latex gloves used in healthcare, which was high in the protein that triggers latex allergy. Although nowadays, latex gloves have been enhanced to be lower in protein, but people who are over sensitive to latex and used to have latex allergies can be under the severe influences of latex even when they are just in a room with latex items.
Notes on Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) is a rare disorder in which anaphylaxis occurs in association with physical activity such as jogging, tennis, swimming, walking, or even strenuous chores such as shoveling snow. As soon as patients have this reaction, they may feel tired, itching, warm.
The cause of EIA cannot not be identified, however; other factors such as medications, foods, alcohol, weather conditions (hot, cold, or humid) and menstruation may be also responsible for the EIA. They combine with exercise to trigger the Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.
Some drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) take high risks of EIA. Moreover, if you consume some groups of foods including cereal grains, seafood, nuts, fruits, vegetables, dairy, and alcohol in previous 24 hours before exercising, you are likely to have EIA. Although EIA stand in relation to diet, there is no specific food that triggers the symptom.
Oral Mite Anaphylaxis (Pancake Syndrome)
Oral Mite Anaphylaxis (Pancake Syndrome) is a disease in which a person gets symptoms after eating contaminated food with particular mite. This type of allergy has a brief name called OMA. Dust mites habitat is commonly in bedding material, carpeting, upholstered furniture and probably in contaminate foods from wheat flour and other cereal grain. The patient may have symptoms of OMA around few minutes to hours after consuming that food containing dust mites.
It is reported that the number of case suffering OMA is mostly found in younger patients who have other allergies. However, there are not any answers for the question why the figure people having trials with this type of anaphylaxis reduces significantly, how popular dust mite allergy is and the frequency that flour can be polluted by mites. Moreover, in the report, 44 percent of people having the OMA used to has allergy to NSAIDS.
Cold urticaria is a skin reaction to cold that appears within minutes after cold exposure. This is a rare condition leading to anaphylaxis.
Delayed Allergy to Red Meat
People who used to be bitten by a tick whose food is common from farm animal blood have priority to have a rare type of anaphylaxis. After that they may be sensitive to alpha-gal which is a kind of carbohydrate in meat of mammals such as beef, lamb, pork and goat. This can result in progressing anaphylaxis when they consume red meat.
Allergies and asthma is believed to be a genetic predisposition among members in family. People with allergies to the common triggers of anaphylaxis are more at risk as you are over sensitive to future exposure to allergen, which progress rapidly anaphylaxis even when your reaction is normal. The recurrence of anaphylactic episode potentially happens with person having previous an anaphylaxis, which even more dangerous.
It is necessary to make thorough preparation in case severe allergic reactions such as food-based or insect stings allergy happen, especially for who suffer from asthma or other chronic lung diseases as it can increase greater risks of dying during anaphylaxis.
Mastocytosis a type of mast cell disease, is a rare disorder affecting both children and adults caused by a mutation in a gene. Mutation happens during the production of mast cells in an individual. With mastocytosis, it means that more mast cells are created, leading to the more histamine and other chemicals produced. If you exposure to allergen, these chemicals are released and boost the possibility of having anaphylaxis.
You can be at risk of dying during an episode of anaphylaxis in case of you are diagnosed with a weak cardiovascular ailment. Moreover, it is more life-threatening to whom are taking beta-blockers or alpha-adrenergic blockers during the reaction as these medicines are able to weaken the role of epinephrine to eliminate the anaphylaxis.
In case of people aging over 50, epinephrine may be not the appropriate measure to cure since it can make imminent of heart complications such as atrial fibrillation and myocardial infarction.